#1 - Introduction to Apportionment.US
#2 - Summary of the Apportionment Lawsuit (Part 1)
#3 - Summary of the Apportionment Lawsuit (Part 2)
#4 - Constitutional Representation
#5 - Constitutional Equality
#6 - How Unequal is the U.S. House?
#7 - The Senate and Equality
#8 - The Government's Position in the Lawsuit (Part 1)
#9 - The Government's Position in the Lawsuit (Part 2)
#10 - The Government's Position in the Lawsuit (Part 3)
#11 - Constitutional Mandate of "Equal as is Practicable"
#12 - The Real Size of the U.S. House (hint: it's NOT 435)
#13 - The Original 1st Amendment
#14 - The Impact of Party Loyalty and Special Interests
#15 - Advantages of a Larger House (Part 1)
#16 - Advantages of a Larger House (Part 2)
#17 - Common Objections to Enlarging the House (Part 1)
#18 - Common Objections to Enlarging the House (Part 2)
#19 - How You Can Help!
If you've read the Complaint and the information on the Background page, you likely have questions. We have prepared a Frequently Asked Questions document.
To download a copy of the FAQ, click here.
How does YOUR state compare as it relates to House representation? Are you and your state being treated unfairly under the current system? How does your state fare under the Plans A and B as proposed in the lawsuit?
To download a PDF, click here.
Supreme Court Cases
Thesis statement to support this lawsuit:
Government—National, State, and local—must grant to each citizen the equal protection of its laws, which includes an equal opportunity to influence the election of lawmakers, no matter how large the majority wishing to deprive other citizens of equal treatment or how small the minority who object to their mistreatment.
Avery v. Midland County, 390 U.S. 474, 481, n.6 (1968).
Important cases involving apportionment and representation:
Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186 (1962)
Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 U.S. 1 (1964)
Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964)
Avery v. Midland County, 390 U.S. 474 (1968)
Kirkpatrick v. Preisler, 394 U.S. 526 (1969)
Wells v. Rockefeller, 394 U.S. 542 (1969)
Gaffney v. Cummings, 412 U.S. 735 (1973)
White v. Regester, 412 U.S. 755 (1973)
White v. Weiser, 412 U.S. 783 (1973)
Connor v. Finch, 431 U.S. 407 (1977)
Karcher v. Daggett, 462 U.S. 725 (1983)
United States Department of Commerce v. Montana, 503 U.S. 442 (1992)
Franklin v. Massachusetts, 505 U.S. 788 (1992)
Wisconsin v. City of New York, 517 U.S. 1 (1996)
Dept. of Commerce v. U.S. House of Representatives, 525 U.S. 316 (1999)
Utah v. Evans, 536 U.S. 452 (2002)
Jonah Goldberg (2009) - We Need a Bigger House
Walter Williams (2008) - Political Monopoly Power
Billy House (2008) - Would a Bigger Congress be Better?
George Will (2001) - Why Not Have 1,000 Congressman?
Jowei Chen and Neil Malhotra - The Law of k/n : The Effect of Chamber Size on Government
Spending in Bicameral Legislatures
Jeff Quidam - Freedom and Legislative District Sizes (article); State Freedom Indicies and Legislative District Population Sizes (paper)
Jeffrey Ladewig & Mathew Jasinski- On the Causes and Consequences of and Remedies for Interstate Malapportionment of the U. S. House of Representatives
Christopher Straw - The Role of Electoral Accountability in the Madisonian Machine
Brian Frederick - Constituency Population and Representation in the U. S. House
Charles Kromkowski & John Kromkowski - Why 435? A Question of Political Arithmetic
- Declaration of Independence
- Bill of Rights (including all 12 original Amendments); read the text by clicking here